Dental Implants

Dental implant procedure is an artificial tooth root that trained and highly educated dentist places into the jaw of patient to hold a replacement tooth or bridge. Care for sure dental Clinic is the right stop for implant treatment that carries out the treatment with most modern instruments. Dental implant is a hi-tech procedure as well as proves tooth-saving than traditional bridgework, since implants do not depend on adjacent teeth for support.
These artificial implants look natural and give a feeling of confidence. It is promising to the extent that you may forget the tooth less days. You essentially need to know that confidence about teeth affects how you feel about yourself personally and professionally. Probably you might hide smile because of missing teeth as well as facing difficulty while chewing. If you are missing one or more teeth and would like to smile, speak and eat again with confidence, there is good news! Dental implants are the best solutions that can look and feel just like natural one! Under normal conditions, such as placement by a periodontist and diligent patient maintenance, implants can last for lifetime. Long-term studies continue to show improving success rates for implants.

• Replace affected teeth with ease and comfort without affecting bordering teeth.
• Support a bridge while eliminating the need for a retractable partial denture.
• Support denture to make it more convenient and promising.
• Who have minimal bone height.

Dental implants prove a better solution for missing teeth.

• Esthetic: Implants look and feel like naturally grown as they integrate with the structure of bone as well as prevent bone loss and gum recession that often accompany    bridgework and dentures. Nobody will know that you have an artificial tooth.
• Tooth-saving: They do not affect the performance and quality of adjacent teeth like a bridge does because neighboring teeth are not treated upon to support the artificial    one. Your teeth are left untouched resulting in a significant long-term benefit to oral health.
• Confidence: Mechanically fixed teeth allow speaking and eating with confidence and convenience. It is a safe and secure treatment that offers freedom from irksome clicks    and wobbles of dentures. They also do not let face problems in lack of misplaced dentures and messy pastes and glues.
• Reliable: It is a reliable cure to enjoy expected results. For the same reason, they are considered as an excellent option for tooth replacement.

You essentially have to be in good general and oral health. Adequate bone in jaw is required to support the implant and best candidates have healthy gum tissues that are free of any kind of disease. The primary consideration for the suitability of dental implants for a particular patient is the amount and condition of the bone in the area where the implant is to be placed. With the loss of a tooth, the area of the jaw without the tooth naturally undergoes resorption, or a thinning, of the bone in that area. The less bone available in which to place the implant, the greater chance of the implant not "taking" in the region. A common type of implant, called root form implants due to their similarity in shape to a tooth root, actually undergo a bonding with the surrounding bone called Osseo integration. Without enough healthy bone at the implant site, this process cannot occur and the implant will fail.
There are two solutions commonly used for highly resorbed bone in the area where the implant is to occur. The first is bone grafting. This involves undergoing a procedure that moves bone from one place in the body to another to enlarge the bone structure at the implant site. Often bone can be moved from one place in the mouth to another. Sometimes a graft from a donor or an animal or artificial bone can be used if bone from the patient is not available. Grafting usually is done four to eight months before the implant procedure, to allow the graft a chance to heal before it is disturbed with the implant process.
Other important information
A further consideration as to suitability for implants is the patient's general health, especially whether or not the patient smokes. Although the exact cause of the connection is not known, dentists hypothesize that the nicotine in the cigarettes, known to shut down blood vessels, interferes with the healing of the dental implants. Whatever the cause, heavy smokers are known to have a higher failure rate for implants than those who do not smoke. Other chronic conditions that affect healing, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and immunosupression can also increase the chance of implant rejection.

• Replacing a Single Tooth: In case of single missing tooth, one implant and a crown can replace it successfully. It replaces both the lost one and its root.
• Replacing Several Teeth: If you are suffering with lose of several teeth then implant-supported bridges can replace them. It ideally replaces both lost natural teeth as well as    roots.
• Replacing All of Your Teeth: If all teeth have fallen then implant-supported full bridge or full denture can replace them.
• Sinus Augmentation: The main key to the successfully implant is the quantity and quality of bone where implant has to be placed. Upper back jaw has conventionally been    one of the most problematic areas to successfully carry out the exercise due to insufficient bone quantity and quality and proximity to the sinus. Sinus augmentation can help    to correct the problem by raising sinus floor and developing bone for placement of dental implants.
• Ridge Modification: Irregular shape in upper or lower jaw can leave you with inadequate bone in which to place implants. To correct the problem, the gum is lifted away from    the ridge to expose the bony defect. The fault is then filled with bone or bone substitute to build up ridge. This treatment is widely known to improve the appearance and    increase chances for successful implants that can last for long years.

It is essential for you to know that teeth require regular cleaning at-home oral care and regular dental visits. Artificial denture set are like natural teeth therefore require same care. In order to keep implant clean and plaque-free, brushing and flossing are very necessary.

The greatest risk following the surgical procedures is that the implant will fail. For implants placed within the bone, most failures occur within the first year and then occur at a rate of less than one percent per year thereafter. Location of the implant can also predict the risk of failure. Implants in the back upper jaw fail most often, followed by the front upper jaw, the back lower jaw, and the most success seen in implant of the front lower jaw. Overall, the success rate for all implants runs from 90 to 95%. Most failed implants can be replaced with a second attempt.
Be sure to:
• Tell your dentist about any allergies you have (to foods, drugs, environmental elements)
• Tell your dentist about all medications you are taking (both prescription and non-prescription) Carefully follow any instructions your dentist gives you.

Under local anesthesia, the first step for many implant procedures is the exposure of the bone where the implant is to be made. This is followed by placement of the implant into the exposed jawbone. Implants that are placed in the bone are called endosteal implants and are made of titanium or a titanium alloy because this metal does not adversely interact with biological tissue.
After placement of the implant a cover screw is put in and the wound is closed with stitches and allowed to heal. In general, placements in the lower jaw need to heal about three months, while placements in the upper jaw need to heal about six months. After healing, in a second surgical procedure, the implant is uncovered, the cover screw is removed and a healing abutment or a temporary crown is placed in the implant. Temporary crowns are generally used for esthetic reasons, when the implant is in a place that is visible. Both healing abutments and temporary crowns allow the tissue around the implant to be trained to grow around the final prosthetics tooth. After about two months the soft tissue will be healed to receive the final prosthetic tooth.
Impressions are taken to make a custom abutment that takes into account the shape of the neck of the implant. The prosthetic tooth is sometimes attached to a cylinder that can be screwed into the abutment or it can be directly cemented onto the abutment. This multi-stage process, where the two surgical procedures are separated by a lengthy healing time, has proven to provide excellent stability in the final implant.
Single step surgical implants are available, but skipping the healing step often loses some stability of the final implant.Immediate placement with instant crown has specific indications and may not suit every patient.

Surgery time will vary greatly depending on the number of dental implants. For each of the two visits, one implant, going very smoothly, will take a little over an hour. Time goes up proportionally from there.

For most people, dental implants last between fifteen and twenty-five years. They may last significantly longer, but implantation is a new procedure and data has not been gathered. Between about 5 and about 10% of implants fail, but they often can be replaced with another implant attempt


Oral health plays a key role for general health irrespective of age. You essentially need healthy teeth to live a convenient life. Regular cleaning and right eating habits can help to keep teeth healthy for lifetime. Scaling is one on the most significant procedures that helps to keep gums and teeth healthy and firm. This procedure basically removes infected deposits like plaque, calculus, stains and other harmful elements from tooth surface. If, you will not remove these filthy elements then stay ready to get suffered with infection and loosening of gums and teeth that eventually causes pyorrhoea and tooth loss. Scaling is a new age process and it is entirely safe. Routine treatment does not damage tooth surface in any way. However, it is very important to consult the trained dentist for optimum results. We at Smile 'n' Shine Dental Care Centre suggest patients to get scaling done once every six months.

Dental plaque is a soft and colorless film of bacteria, germs and food particles that keeps forming on teeth. These bacteria make colony and multiply rapidly to cause infection and cavities in teeth. Simultaneously gums also get affected, often resulting in tender bleeding gums. If plaque is not cleaned within 10-14 hours then it mineralizes into calculus or tartar. An aspect of calculus is it cannot be removed with brushing if formed once. Therefore, scaling proves essential to get rid of this.

Routine cleaning by dentist is important to remove calculus or tartar that may develop despite careful brushing and flossing. Professional cleaning is mixture of scaling and polishing. Scaling is a simple non-surgical treatment to remove infected deposits like tartar, calculus or other kind of debris from tooth. Careless attitude in this direction might lead to periodontal disease. These diseases deepen pocket between tooth and gum. This provides perfect atmosphere for quick growth of anaerobic bacteria. In addition, bacteria multiply rapidly to infect more of the gum and start dissolving the tooth supporting bone. This situation progressively makes tooth loose. Furthermore, treatment becomes more extensive and complicated in order to save teeth. Gum surgery is required to make surrounding tissues healthy.

Scaling is proper cleaning of teeth above and below the gum line in order to remove any plaque, tartar and calculus that have smeared on tooth. This procedure requires special tools to fetch expected results and stay protected against any kind of infection or side effect. Basically, dentists use ultrasonic machine. It carries a fine tip that vibrates at ultrasonic frequency to dislodge tartar and plaque from tooth. These vibrations are extremely fine therefore do not harm tooth or gum in anyway. Dentist might also schedule next appointment for coming 4-6 weeks to check the improvement. Experts recommend going for professional teeth cleaning at least every 6 to 12 months. You essentially need to pay more visits to doctor in case of any kind of dental/oral disorders. Routine checkup is indispensable to maintain oral health for perfect chewing.

Plaque formation is a continuous process and starts mineralizing into tartar within 10-14 hours if not brushed away. These people need periodic scaling at every 6 months. The golden rule to keep teeth and gum healthy is to go for a periodical check at every 6 months. The best advice will come from doctor whether you need scaling or not. He will also instruct on correct home care for healthy teeth. It must be emphasized again that scaling does not weaken them but prevents gum diseases which make gums bleeding and if not checked leading to more critical problems.


Orthodontics proves helpful for:
• Correction of crooked and irregular teeth using metallic or tooth colored braces
• Make sure that milk teeth to fall off on time and helping permanent teeth to take proper positions
• Correction of improper growth of upper and lower jaws if present by using special tools that can modify the jaw growth in growing children
• Regulation of harmful mouth related habits like thumb sucking, nail biting or tongue thrusting and correction of any dental problems triggered by these habits.

You may need Orthodontic treatment If
• You feel that teeth are irregularly placed
• There is gap between teeth
• You feel that smile is not pleasing
• You find that jaws are very prominent or there is excessive or undergrowth
• You have thumb sucking or tongue thrusting habits
• You experience increased fullness around upper and lower lips ( forwardly placed teeth )

We will have a detailed discussion about your concern when you come for first orthodontic appointment. Then, orthodontist will carry out a thorough clinical examination to decide whether orthodontic treatment is required for you or not. If treatment is required, the most probable line of treatment would be discussed along with all options.

The next step will check your history before starting the treatment. These records include photographs, duplication of teeth and X-rays (Radiographs). After collection and study of records actual treatment procedure would be started according to the requirement.

It is essential for you to know that duration depends on the type of treatment being used. It generally varies from 14-20 months however it may sometimes takes lesser or more time, again depending on the type of treatment required. You might be needed to visit the doctor at least once a month for appointments for complete healing.

Certainly! orthodontic treatment can be carried upon anybody irrespective of age. More and more grownups people nowadays seek orthodontic treatment and are treated successfully. It is very common misconception that adults cannot be treated orthodontically and their crooked teeth cannot be straightened!
Most people get orthodontic treatment because they realize that taking care of smile is part of taking care of you. Orthodontics definitely provides beautiful smile irrespective of age!

At the completion of the active part of orthodontic treatment, the braces are removed and retaining appliances (retainers) are fitted to hold the teeth steady in their new position. These appliances may be removable plates or wires fitted behind the teeth.Retainers play an important role in orthodontic treatment for, if they are not worn according to instructions, the teeth may move back towards their original position.
The retaining appliances are usually worn:
• Full-time for up to one year
• Just at night for a further year
• Phased out altogether over one more year

A. Age 7, unless you suspect a problem at an earlier age, because most facial asymmetries are likely to be apparent by that time. A timely screening will lead to extraordinary treatment benefits. For others, the principle benefit is peace of mind.

A. Early diagnosis and treatment can guide erupting teeth into a more favorable position, preserve space for the permanent teeth and reduce the likelihood of fracturing protruded front teeth. Also, early treatment may shorten treatment time, make treatment easier and in some cases less expensive. It may even provide advantages that are not available later.

A. Orthodontic therapy may eliminate the need for other medical and dental treatment. The physical and psychological benefits usually last a lifetime, which makes orthodontics one of the best investments in healthcare and quality of life.

A. Appearance has been related to popularity, social behaviors, self-expectation, personality style, and self-esteem. Orthodontic therapy may lessen the likelihood that a child will be picked on by other children. Treatment may reduce appearance-consciousness and the emotional scarring that can occur during critical developmental years. Also, as adolescents enter the sensitive teenage years, they become far less receptive to orthodontic therapy.

A. Additional benefits may include better function, improved cleanability, more favorable wear patterns and greater longevity of natural teeth.

A. This is the time when much of the development of the face occurs. Treatment during this period allows the orthodontist to favorably influence the facial profile in a growing child. Once growth of the facial bones is complete, correction of skeletal discrepancies usually requires surgery.

If in doubt, refer. If you notice a problem and refer to a specialist, your legal and professional responsibilities are fulfilled. Also, an early referral can avoid more complex problems that may worsen with time.

The problem may be one of opportunities missed with respect to growth and development. While patients can be treated at any age, those with available growth may enjoy a substantial advantage. Timely treatment may prevent the need for jaw surgery, extraction of permanent teeth, or fracture of protruded incisors. Early treatment may also help the psychological development. Patients also benefit from guidance of tooth eruption.

Patients who have teeth and healthy supporting structures are never too old for orthodontic therapy. Age is not a factor.

Ask the question: "Are you happy with the appearance of your teeth?" The ill be your guide to further answer will be your guide to further development of the conversation.

Many adults are receiving orthodontic care that was not available to them as children. They realize that improving the health of their mouths and the attractiveness of their smiles and facial appearances can result in changes for the better in their personal, social, and professional lives.

Advanced technology has produced small tooth-colored brackets that are barely noticeable. Specially alloyed wires are more comfortable, can speed up treatment, and may decrease the number of necessary appointments. New retainers can be placed where they do not show. Also, advanced surgical techniques now allow treatment of many skeletal problems after growth is completed.

Surgical and Non Surgical Dentistry

Dental extraction is a process that removes Infected tooth or teeth from the mouth. This treatment is performed for various reasons. Tooth decay that has damaged enough tooth structure to prevent restoration is the most common indication for extraction. This process is most commonly used for problematic wisdom teeth or to make space for orthodontic treatment.
Care for sure dental clinic is well-equipped with the most modern tools and expertise for easy and efficient dental extractions. Every process here is done under complete asepsis and it is a infection free zone. Surgical extraction is performed by Dr. Jyotsna Jha who is an oral & maxillofacial surgeon .

The most common reasons for tooth extraction are damage such as breakage or fracture. Some other possible reasons could be:
• Critical gum diseases which may affect supporting tissues and bone structures inside mouth
• Extreme tooth decay or infection
• For orthodontic treatment
• Insufficient space for wisdom teeth
• Receiving radiation to head and neck may require extraction in the field of radiation.

Dental extraction is one of the most common treatments, requested by people, at dental clinics and hospitals. However, root canal is a more effective option to relieve pain from an infected tooth, in most of the cases dental extraction is the only option left. Even though most extractions proceed without any difficulty, some can occur.
Most people who have had tooth or teeth extracted know that a certain degree of pain and bleeding is normal. Pain that lasts up to a week or more but is gradually improving and bleeding that continues for up to 12-24 hours but is slowing down should be considered typical and will most likely not require follow-up care. Pain that worsens after two days should be considered abnormal and may require attention of a medical expert. Ache that increases after extraction might be due to a dry socket, usually treated by the dentist rinsing the socket with medicated lotion, packing the area with a medicated dressing and putting the patient on pain relieving pills. Bleeding is another problem that lasts for more than 24-hour or is increasing after some time. This might be a point of serious problem that needs immediate attention from dentist. Persistent bleeding may occur if any blood vessel or tissue is damaged during extraction, if a patient is taking specific kind of medication or has a predisposing medical condition. Extreme bleeding can also be caused by a patient rinsing, spitting, or smoking after the extraction. Dentist can pack and stitch the socket to stop bleeding.

Wisdom teeth usually emerge from the gum (erupt) between the ages of 17 and 24. They are the last of the molar teeth. Some people never develop wisdom teeth, others have up to four - one in each corner of the mouth.
Wisdom teeth often cause no problems. They are described as impacted when there is not enough space for them at the back of the mouth. In such a case it might erupt towards the cheek or it might impinge on the second molar. Impacted wisdom teeth can cause pain, swelling, infection or damage to the teeth next to them. If the gum around the wisdom tooth is swollen the jaw may become stiff and sore. Infection at the back of the mouth can cause bad breath and a bad taste. The surgical removal (extraction) of one or more wisdom teeth can relieve these problems. People who have impacted wisdom teeth that are not causing problems do not need to have them removed.
Having wisdom teeth removed is often the only way to permanently relieve painful symptoms. Although antibiotics can provide temporary relief, the symptoms tend to flare up again in the future.
Having wisdom teeth removed is often the only way to permanently relieve painful symptoms. Although antibiotics can provide temporary relief, the symptoms tend to flare up again in the future. The removal of such impacted wisdom tooth has to be accomplished surgically. A flap is reflected to completely expose the tooth. Some amount of bone cutting may be required to facilitate easy removal. After the tooth is extracted the flaps are put in place and sutured. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia and is associated with minimal pain and discomfort.
In some cases, where a wisdom tooth is causing pain because it is pressing into the surrounding gum, removal may not be necessary - an operation to cut back the gum may be all that is needed. However, this alternative is not suitable for everyone.

Tooth Colored Filling

Tooth colored restorations are preffered over traditionally used silver amalgam fillings as they prove better over the latter in terms of commendable aesthetics and are free of mercury and any other kind of harmful material as a constituent unlike amalgam fillings where mercury is a major element.
This material is either composite resin or glass ionomer cement. We, at our well-equipped dental care centre use best quality nano ceramic filed composite resin that provides better aesthetics as well as serves for long period of time with high durability rate in comparison with other traditional fillings.
This treatment is carried out with the help of modern curing LED lights which bring the setting of filling material. It is a revolutionary technique to treat dental problem in an effective manner, enabling patients to modify oral conditions while maintaining a dazzling smile.
Today, most of the patients choose this method to get restorations completed in white materials. Virtually identical in appearance with naturally grown teeth; this treatment provides whiter, brighter and healthier smile. However, continuous developments in dental technologies have made this procedure more promising than ever before. In addition, it does not put any adverse effect on teeth. You do not need to doubt this fact as extensive researches and studies have proven it. Actually, it maintains the same strength as natural tooth enamel.

You may not know if you need fillings in your teeth. Many small to medium holes in teeth are asymptomatic, giving no pain. In fact, decay can sometimes eat out two-thirds of the tooth from the inside and you would have no idea it is happening.
Dental radiographs (X-rays), which are taken on a regular basis as part of your check-up, may show early decay that has not yet given any symptoms. You may be able to see a change in the colour on some of your teeth which may indicate early decay.
If your teeth are sensitive to hot, cold, or sweet food and drink, you may need fillings. All persistently sensitive teeth should be checked by your dentist. Toothache that lasts for more than a few minutes at a time should be investigated by your dentist. Teeth that cause severe pain may require fillings, or in some cases will require more extensive treatment such as root canal treatment.

Most teeth with small to moderate decay or fractures are easily restored to function with fillings. Where decay is extensive or fractures are large, more complex treatment may be required. Some teeth can be so badly broken down or fractured that they are unable to be saved.

dentist can use various kinds of filling material to restore your tooth which varies from patient to patient. Basically he will use the following kinds of filling material to fill your tooth.
Silver Amalgam
Gold Filling
Glass Ionomer
Light Cure Glass Ionomer
Light Cure Composite Resin

Amalgam fillings are used to repair teeth for hundreds of thousands of people each year in India. Dental amalgam is a popular choice, as it is strong, relatively inexpensive and can last a lifetime.

Dentists replace amalgam fillings for a variety of reasons including recurring decay, fracture, endodontic treatment and appearance. If you seek replacement of quite satisfactory amalgam fillings for other reasons, such as a concern about the effects of mercury, you may create problems that otherwise would not have occurred, such as:
Possible damage to or weakening of teeth.
Sensitivity or pain after the filling.
Financial problems.

White fillings have been used in front teeth for decades. In recent times, scientists have developed strong white filling materials for back teeth to be used as an alternative to the dark colour of amalgam. The reason for this is the public demand for tooth-coloured fillings in visible areas of the mouth. These materials have not been in use for enough time to test their long-term comparison with amalgam but results are encouraging.

Tooth preparation, prior to filling placement, is usually done under local anaesthesia (making the tooth numb). Once all the decay is removed and the tooth is washed and dried, the filling is packed into the cavity and it sets. After the filling is placed, it is shaped to match the original tooth contour and the bite is checked

The following are the advanages and disadvantages of composite fillings:
Advantages :
- Bleaching is much cheaper than crowns or veneers and research indicates that it is completely effective in more than 90% of people.
- The composite bonds to further support the remaining tooth structure helping to prevent breakage and damage to your tooth.
- They look more natural as they are color blended to match your natural tooth color. These fillings are often used to improve the appearance of misshapen, chipped or    discolored teeth.
- Composite fillings last from six to twelve years or more.
- The procedure usually takes just one visit to your dentist.
- There is very little sensitivity to hot or cold items, often experienced with amalgam fillings.
- The dentist won't need to drill as much of the tooth structure as the composite is applied in layers.
Disadvantages :
- Composite resin fillings require more time to apply than amalgam fillings.
- As a result of the time required there is an increased cost for placing composite fillings.

Some fillings can be repaired when they fracture, or the tooth around them fractures, but only if there is no tooth decay present

The position, shape, material, and functioning pressure, all influence how long dental fillings will last. Larger fillings that bear a heavy functional load tend to break down more quickly than smaller fillings that bear little force. This is why it is impossible and meaningless to try to state categorically how long fillings should last.
However, when placing a filling, the dentist may have an idea of the expectation of the life of the filling. For example, a very small filling in the groove of a tooth away from biting pressure could be there for decades whereas a very large one in the mouth of a person who grinds their teeth may be lucky to last a few years and really should have a crown.
In a checkup, your dentist is constantly monitoring the state of your fillings, looking for signs of weakness, cracking, decay or discolouration.

With proper attention to diet, oral self-care, regular dental check-ups, and the correct use of mouthguards to prevent injury, the need for fillings can be eliminated, and the frequency of filling re-placement can be extended.

Root canal therapy

Root canal therapy is a dental procedure which helps in removing the entire internal parts, mainly pulp chamber of the tooth. It also involves the filling of the prepared empty cavity with a suitable bio-compatible material.
This procedure is done and advised only when the tooth can not compensate restoring material in a small cavity on the surface. The procedure involves the removal of the nervous elements of the tooth which have been infected or decayed already due to microbial action or any physical pressures.
The procedure that involves the root canal is also called as root canal therapy or root canal treatment. This is the only procedure that can help when the entire pulp and its contents are decayed. This procedure of root canal treatment can be done by a general dentist, but the one who specializes in this field is an Endodontist.

• The dentist diagnoses a patient and advices for the treatment if the root canal is decayed.
• The tooth area is isolated with the help of rubber dam kit, which is a rubber sheet fitted with the help of clamps or clips around the tooth which is going to be treated. This    isolation helps in ease of operation for the dentist and prevents the entry of mixing of fluids from the motor and the saliva in the mouth.
• The dentist would then prepare a cavity by the help of an aerotor which is done with proper outline and depth into the root, but this does not eliminate all the contents of the    pulp chamber. Then the root canal files are used to entirely clean the root. These root canal files increase in thickness when they enter the root and help in removal of the    pulp of the tooth.
• After this is done, there are 2 ways of which one is chosen by the dentist - Either do everything else in a single seating or sealing the cavity with a soothing medicine with a    temporary filling material for a week until the next seating is called for the completion of the procedure.
• The use of soothing medicine is that it prevents the spread of further infection, if there was any prior to the cavity preparation, or also prevention of occurrence of any new    infection in that region.
• The final stage includes the filling of the canal with some plastic material called Gutta Percha which are bio-compatible, and after the canal is filled, a suitable and aesthetic    regular cement filling is done over it, which can be accompanied with crown placement sometimes.
• The dentist diagnoses a patient and advices for the treatment if the root canal is decayed.
• The tooth area is isolated with the help of rubber dam kit, which is a rubber sheet fitted with the help of clamps or clips around the tooth which is going to be treated. This    isolation helps in ease of operation for the dentist and prevents the entry of mixing of fluids from the motor and the saliva in the mouth.
• The dentist would then prepare a cavity by the help of an aerotor which is done with proper outline and depth into the root, but this does not eliminate all the contents of the    pulp chamber. Then the root canal files are used to entirely clean the root. These root canal files increase in thickness when they enter the root and help in removal of the    pulp of the tooth.
• After this is done, there are 2 ways of which one is chosen by the dentist - Either do everything else in a single seating or sealing the cavity with a soothing medicine with a    temporary filling material for a week until the next seating is called for the completion of the procedure.
• The use of soothing medicine is that it prevents the spread of further infection, if there was any prior to the cavity preparation, or also prevention of occurrence of any new    infection in that region.
• The final stage includes the filling of the canal with some plastic material called Gutta Percha which are bio-compatible, and after the canal is filled, a suitable and aesthetic    regular cement filling is done over it, which can be accompanied with crown placement sometimes.

The dentist would try to make the treatment planning for the ease of the patient, but there are a few factors which decide the amount of chair time and the number of seatings-
• The position of tooth in the mouth, maxillary molars take more time than the mandibular ones.
• Number of roots present in a tooth and number of root canals seen in the roots, as each of the canal is to be emptied and filled with the filling material.
• The length and thickness of root canals.
• Previous procedures - If the tooth has gone through some treatment earlier, like crown placement, then it takes more time for the entire procedure rather than the normal    tooth with some small filling.
Some facts to remember-
Root canals are done to protect a tooth, the calcified tissues of the tooth. This helps in maintaining the jaw integrity. If the entire tooth is extracted, the space in between the adjacent teeth can lead to shifting around of those teeth if a bridge or implant placement is not done rightly there. So, a root canal treatment is advised for the protection of the tooth during an infection The thickness of the calcified structure would be considered by the dentist as they are more brittle and can break down. So to maintain and restore a tooth structure, crown placement is usually done.
Any endodontic infection is accompanied with swelling due to inflammation of that region, which occurs after the necrosis or death of the oral tissue. This, if not taken care of, will spread to all the parts of the oral cavity and sometimes would lead to some medical complications in severe cases.
When root canal is done, it does not make the tooth entirely dead. Removal of the pulp contents do not make the tooth dead. The reason for this is that the tooth still gets adequate nourishment from the adjacent tissues and from the alveolar bone. So it is not regarded as a dead tooth, and it can be restored and maintains the integrity of the alveolar bone and dental arch when a crown is placed over it.

root canal treatment is advised in following conditions -
• Severe toothache which is during chewing or during contact with any extreme hot or extreme cold temperature material which is usually tolerated by the mouth.
• Constant tooth pain during mastication or chewing
• Darkening of the tooth
• Swelling seen in the areas of gums around the tooth

Believe in these before going for a root canal treatment
• Patients fear of root canal - It was believed to be one of the most painful procedure in dentistry and every patient who was advised to have root canal done used to fear to go    to the dentist. But this is not a problem now, as good anesthetics are available which can subside the pain.
• It is not time consuming - Earlier it used to take many visits for the completion of the root canal and this caused disturbance in the schedules of the patients and it was a hard    task for them. Now it takes not more than 2 visits for the completion of the entire procedure.
• Pain is not the only symptom - As said above, root canal should be done to prevent an infection, only the pain can not be taken as a factor to consider. If there is no pain in a    particular region but there is some swelling with discoloration, the dentist have to properly check for the infection.
• Better than extraction - It was believed entirely reverse of this. People used to believe in the fact that getting the tooth removed completely would be better than having root    canal done. But maintaining the natural tooth for long can be helpful in proper chewing and strengthening of the tooth.Also the cost for extraction is followed by its next    procedure like removable denture or implant, which costs more than a root canal procedure.
• Pregnant women - There are suitable anesthetics available for pregnant women and the x-ray required during the root canal treatment is small and focused only in the mouth    region, so does not affect the abdominal region. So there is no restriction for pregnant women and they can have the root canal done, but prior to the treatment, the dentist    should be kept aware about the fact that the patient is pregnant.

Root treated teeth should be cured just the same way as any other tooth. Remember to clean teeth at least once a day, preferably with fluoride enriched toothpaste. In addition, watch your eating habits. Try best efforts to keep sugary snacks aside and say “yes” only to mealtimes if possible. Furthermore, visit dental expert at regular interval for thorough check-up.
RCT does not kill a tooth. Actually, root canal treatment removes pulp tissue from inside the tooth, this condition cannot be termed as killing of tooth. With successful endodontic treatment, tooth continues to receive blood supply and nourishment from nearby tissues and supporting bone. Body's immune system also continues to identify endodontically treated tooth as viable and healthy, just as it recognizes any other healthy tooth. An endodontically treated tooth basically needs a protective crown and once this restoration has been completed, tooth continues to function as an integral part of dental arch. A tooth that has had RCT and has been properly restored is no more susceptible to fracture, decay, or gum problems than any other tooth.

Crowns are also known as caps. They restore affected teeth and maintain the shape, size and color of adjacent teeth. They are indicated for distorted teeth and teeth with cavities; to prevent teeth which have been treated by root-canal treatment (RCT); to provide extra support for bridges and to cover bad-shaped or stained teeth. It’s made up of metal, porcelain or new restorative material like metal free ceramics. Moreover, they are custom-made and fitted for each patient in conformation with size and length of naturally grown. Generally, they last for five to eight years but proper oral hygiene might also increase their life. Apart from metal, crowns can also be made up of plastic, ceramic or metal alloys. A perfect amalgam of metal and ceramic is also feasible to improve strength and simulate the look of natural teeth.
Teeth to be crowned are prepared by reducing the size (usually under local anesthesia) followed by impression or mould of the prepared tooth. Trimming of tooth requires creating space for the crown to be fitted. The mould measured is then dispatched to a laboratory where experts manufacture the crown. Meanwhile, a temporary crown is prepared and fitted on trimmed tooth.

Bridge corrects the bite of patient who has one or more teeth missing.. If a missing tooth is not replaced on time then it may bring instability to surrounding teeth resulting in necessary removal, compromise on oral health or change for the curves of face and diminish charm of smile. Contrary to partial dentures, bridges are permanent solutions; patients do not need to remove them. Missing teeth are replaced with artificial solutions connected between two crowns (caps) which are permanently attached or fixed on adjacent teeth.
Bridges can also be used to replace a little number of missing teeth if nearby teeth are in strong condition. Number of missing teeth, situation of surrounding teeth, condition of gums and bones are all important elements which need to be assessed before making a bridge. Crowns and bridges can be made of different kinds of raw materials ranging from basic white metals to ceramics and precious metals. It also worth mention that mixture of above given metals is done to make different types of crowns and bridges.

A smile makeover is the ultimate cosmetic dental treatment and can literally transform your teeth into a dazzling, flawless smile. This combination of cosmetic treatments will boost your confidence and make you look beautiful.
Making decisions regarding your dental health is very important. Therefore we created some questions that may prove helpful as you meet with other dental providers. Use questions and comments as a guideline while searching the best options for your dental care.
• Tooth whitening
• Cosmetic bonding.
• Dentures.
• Dental bridges.
• Porcelain veneers.
• Porcelain crowns.
• White fillings.
• Cosmetic Bonding
Cosmetic bonding is a simple and quick treatment, but it can make a significant difference to the aesthetic appeal of your smile. Bonding can be used to reduce gaps between the teeth, repair chips and fill in tiny pits or holes on the surfaces of the teeth.
• Dental Bridges
Dental bridges are an efficient means of replacing missing teeth. They are made of crowns, a false tooth known as a pontic, and are attached to neighbouring teeth and anchored into position. Bridges can help to restore function to the mouth and enhance the aesthetics of the smile.
• Porcelain Crowns
Porcelain crowns are designed to bolster teeth that have become damaged or decayed. They are designed to fit over the top of the existing tooth and blend in with the natural colour of the teeth, creating a perfect smile.
• Porcelain Veneers
Porcelain veneers produce beautiful, radiant smiles. They are very thin sheets of laminate and will be placed over the top of the surface of the natural teeth. You can choose different shades to match the natural colour of your teeth. We are proud to offer some of the finest quality veneers in our clinic.
• Tooth Whitening
We are delighted to offer a range of whitening treatments, including office bleach and home whitening. Office bleach is our most highly recommended treatment because it lightens teeth up to 10 shades and results last for a long time. Home whitening products are often used alongside professional in-chair treatments. Treatment involves wearing specially made trays containing whitening agents for a set period of time, which is done so during the night.
• White Fillings
White fillings are a safe and attractive alternative to amalgam fillings. They are used to strengthen teeth with small or medium-sized cavities and prevent further damage. White fillings are designed to blend in with the colour of the natural teeth, so you will not be able to see the filling at all.
Contact us today to find out more about our amazing range of cosmetic dental treatments.
The treatments you choose will depend on the look you want to achieve and your current oral health status. We will be happy to recommend treatments to you based on your individual needs and expectations.

Complete & Partial Denture

Dentures are artificiallymade teeth which are specifically fabricated to replace missing teeth, which are supported by soft and hard tissues of oral cavities. Traditional dentures are removable however there are many several types of denture designs, some of which depend on bonding or clipping onto teeth or implants. There are two main sections for dentures, depending on whether they are used to replace missing teeth on mandibular arch or maxillary arch. There are several informal names famous for these dentures like dental plate, false teeth and falsies)

Removable Partial Dentures
Removable partial dentures suit those patients more who have one or more teeth on a particular arch. Fixed partial dentures, widely known as "crown and bridge", are made from crowns that are fixed on remaining teeth to act as abutments and pontics made from materials to look like missing teeth. Fixed bridges are costly in comparison with removable solutions but are more stable.
Complete Dentures
On the other hand, complete dentures or full dentures are placed in patients who have entire teeth missing in an arch (i.e maxillary or mandibular arch).
The type of denture may also be categorized according to the material being used.
• Regular acrylic dentures
• Unbreakable ‘sunflex’ dentures which are also known as flexible dentures.
Soft Dentures and Flexible Dentures
One of the most common threats for dentures is bad fit. It is very difficult to avoid since gums are between a rock and a hard place. The rock is jawbone and that hard place is hard acrylic liner that holds the prosthetic teeth.
However, some patients can put on dentures without any complaint but some users feel some kind of discomfort and pain while eating. Even slight shifts back and forth can convert into severe gum problems with the course of time. The most common reason for discomfort and denture misfit is ever-changing conditions in mouth. With the passing years, gum tissue shrinks along with the jawbone. Hard dentures cannot team up with new shapes therefore long-time denture users end up using some form of adhesive to increase stability while wearing artificial teeth. A new solution known as soft dentures or flexible dentures promise to eliminate the problems linked with hard acrylic liners. They do not require any kinds of adhesive actually they adjust to irregularities of mouth as well as stay in place even after harsh chewing. The hidden fact of soft dentures is the undercut of gum ridge. Flexible dentures hook into these undercuts to provide firmness required to eat solid and crunchy food like guava and dry fruits.

Pediatric FAQ

Vaccines work by preparing the body to fight illness. Each contains either a dead or a weakened germ (or parts of it) that causes a particular disease. The body practices fighting the disease by making antibodies that recognize specific parts of that germ. This permanent or longstanding response means that if someone is ever exposed to the actual disease, the antibodies are already in place and the body knows how to combat it and the person doesn't get sick. This is called immunity.

No, the immune system makes antibodies against a germ, like the chickenpox virus, whether it encounters it naturally or is exposed to it through a vaccine. Being vaccinated against one disease does not weaken the immune response to another disease.

This is one of the most common concerns about vaccines. However, it's impossible to get the disease from any vaccine made with dead (killed) bacteria or viruses or just part of the bacteria or virus.
Only those immunizations made from weakened (also called attenuated) live viruses — like the chickenpox (varicella) or measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine — could possibly make a child develop a mild form of the disease. But it's almost always much less severe than would happen if someone is infected with the disease-causing virus itself. However, for kids with weakened immune systems, such as those being treated for cancer, these vaccines may cause problems.
The risk of disease from vaccination is extremely small. One live virus vaccine that's no longer used in the United States is the oral polio vaccine (OPV). The success of the polio vaccination program has made it possible to replace the live virus vaccine with a killed virus form known as the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). This change has completely eliminated the possibility of polio disease being caused by immunization in the United States.
The flu vaccine is a good idea for all families. It does not cause the flu and it helps keep kids and parents from getting sick. Getting the flu is worse than having a cold and can make a person sick for a week or more.
Babies younger than 6 months old can't get the vaccine, but if their parents, other caregivers, and older kids in the household get it, that will help protect the baby. This is important because infants are more at risk for serious complications from the flu.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends a flu vaccine for everyone 6 months of age and older.
But it's especially important for those who are at greater risk of developing health problems from the flu, including:
• all kids 6 months through 4 years old (babies younger than 6 months are also considered high risk, but they cannot receive the flu vaccine)
• anyone 65 years and older
• all women who are pregnant, are considering pregnancy, have recently given birth, or are breastfeeding during flu season
• anyone whose immune system is weakened from medications or illnesses (like HIV infection)
• residents of long-term care facilities, such as nursing homes
• anyone (adults, teens, and kids) with a chronic medical condition, such as asthma
• kids or teens who take aspirin regularly and are at risk for developing Reye syndrome if they get the flu
• caregivers or household contacts of anyone in a high-risk group (like children younger than 5 years old, especially those younger than 6 months, and those with high-risk conditions)
• Native Americans and Alaskan Natives
Certain things might prevent a person from getting the flu vaccine. Talk to your doctor to see if the vaccine is still recommended if your child:
• has ever had a severe reaction to a flu vaccination
• has Guillain-Barré syndrome (a rare condition that affects the immune system and nerves)

Different types of vaccines are available. One type (called trivalent) protects against three strains of the flu virus (usually, two types of influenza A viruses and one influenza B virus). Another type (called quadrivalent) protects against four strains.
The vaccine is given to kids by injection with a needle (the flu shot). This vaccine is safe and effective.
Some vaccines are approved only for adults at this time, such as egg-free vaccines and intradermal shots, which are injected into the skin (instead of muscle) with a smaller needle.
Vaccine shortages and delays sometimes happen, so check with your doctor about availability and to see which vaccine is right for your kids. The nasal spray version of the flu vaccine is no longer recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), for kids or adults. The nasal vaccine did not prevent people from getting the flu between 2013 and 2016. Researchers aren't sure why recent versions of the vaccine no longer work well, but at this time, doctors can no longer recommend the nasal spray version.

Flu season runs from October to May. It's best to get a flu shot as early in the season as possible, as it gives the body a chance to build up immunity to (protection from) the flu. But getting a shot later in the season is still better than not getting the vaccine at all.

You've probably experienced waking in the middle of the night to find your child flushed, hot, and sweaty. Your little one's forehead feels warm. You immediately suspect a fever, but are unsure of what to do next. Should you get out the thermometer? Call the doctor?
In healthy kids, fevers usually don't indicate anything serious. Although it can be frightening when your child's temperature rises, fever itself causes no harm and can actually be a good thing — it's often the body's way of fighting infections. And not all fevers need to be treated. High fever, however, can make a child uncomfortable and make problems (such as dehydration) worse.
Here's more about fevers, how to measure and treat them, and when to call your doctor.

Fever happens when the body's internal "thermostat" raises the body temperature above its normal level. This thermostat is found in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus knows what temperature your body should be (usually around 98.6°F/37°C) and will send messages to your body to keep it that way.
Most people's body temperatures even change a little bit during the course of the day: It's usually a little lower in the morning and a little higher in the evening and can vary as kids run around, play, and exercise.
Sometimes, though, the hypothalamus will "reset" the body to a higher temperature in response to an infection, illness, or some other cause. Why? Researchers believe turning up the heat is the body's way of fighting the germs that cause infections and making the body a less comfortable place for them.
Although it can be frightening when a child's temperature rises, feveritself causes no harm and can actually be a good thing — it's often the body's way of fighting infections.

A child may have a fever if he or she is:
• fussy
• uncomfortable
• warm to the touch
• flushed
• sweaty

It's best to keep a child home from school or childcare until the temperature has been normal for at least 24 hours. If your child is uncomfortable, here are some ways to relieve symptoms:
• Offer plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration.
• Give acetaminophen or ibuprofen based on package recommendations. Do not give aspirin.
• Never use rubbing alcohol or cold baths to bring the fever down.
• Dress your child in lightweight clothing and cover with a light sheet or blanket.
• Let your child eat what he or she wants, and don't force eating if your child doesn't feel like it.
• If your child also is vomiting and/or has diarrhea, ask the doctor if you should give a children's electrolyte (rehydration) solution.
• Make sure your child gets plenty of rest.

• an infant is younger than 3 months old and has a temperature of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher
If an older child has a fever and:
• appears sick
• develops a rash
• has persistent diarrhea or repeated vomiting
• has signs of dehydration (peeing less than usual, not having tears when crying, less alert and less active than usual)
• has recurring fever for 5 days
• has a chronic medical problem like sickle cell disease, heart problems, cancer, or lupus

Fevers are often unavoidable. The key is to make your child as comfortable as possible until the fever passes, and get medical treatment when necessary.

Sore throats are common at any age and can be one of the first signs of another illness, like a cold, the flu, or mononucleosis. They also can be caused by a strep throat infection, although this is rare in children younger than 2 years old.

• painful throat
• fever
• swollen glands in the neck
• bad breath
• scratchiness in the throat
• redness in the back of the mouth

Here are some ways kids can relieve sore throat pain:
• sip warm liquids
• eat cold or frozen liquids (such as ice pops)
• gargle with saltwater
• suck on hard candy or throat lozenges (for kids age 4 or older)
• take ibuprofen or acetaminophen as needed

If Your Child:
• has difficulty swallowing or breathing
• is drooling (in a young child)
• tires easily
• has pus in the back of the throat
• has a sore throat that lasts longer than a week

As with most common illnesses, preventing a sore throat starts with regular hand washing. Kids also can avoid sore throats by:
• not sharing food utensils and glasses with others
• avoiding contact with people who have sore throats
Symptoms of strep throat, which is very common among kids and teens, include fever, stomach pain, and red, swollen tonsils.
Strep throat usually requires treatment with antibiotics. With the proper medical care — along with plenty of rest and fluids — a child should be back to school and play within a few days.

Anybody can get strep throat, but it's most common in school-age kids and teens. These infections occur most often during the school year when big groups of kids and teens are in close quarters.
The bacteria that cause strep throat (group A streptococcus) tend to hang out in the nose and throat, so normal activities like sneezing, coughing, or shaking hands can easily spread infection from one person to another. Someone whose strep throat isn't treated is most likely to spread the infection when the symptoms are most severe, but can still infect others for up to 3 weeks.
That's why it's so important to teach kids the importance of hand washing — good hygiene can lessen their chances of getting contagious diseases like strep throat.

Not all sore throats are strep throats. Most episodes of sore throat — which can be accompanied by a runny nose, cough, hoarseness, and red eyes — are caused by viruses and usually clear up on their own without medical treatment.
A child with strep throat will start to develop other symptoms within about 3 days, such as:
• red and white patches in the throat
• difficulty swallowing
• tender or swollen glands (lymph nodes) in the neck
• red and enlarged tonsils
• headache
• lower stomach pain
• fever
• general discomfort, uneasiness, or ill feeling
• loss of appetite and nausea
• rash

If your child has a sore throat and other strep throat symptoms, call your doctor. The doctor will likely do a rapid strep test in the office, using a cotton swab to take a sample of the fluids at the back of the throat. The test only takes about 5 minutes.
If it's positive, your child has strep throat. If it's negative, the doctor will send a sample to a lab for a throat culture. The results are usually available within a few days.

In most cases, doctors prescribe about 10 days of antibiotic medication to treat strep throat. Within about 24 hours after starting on antibiotics, your child will probably no longer have a fever and won't be contagious; by the second or third day, other symptoms should start to go away. Even if your child feels better, he or she should continue to take the antibiotics as prescribed. Otherwise, bacteria can remain in the throat and symptoms can return. Completing all the antibiotics the doctor prescribed is the best way to prevent other health problems that can be caused by a strep infection, such as rheumatic fever (which can permanently damage the heart), scarlet fever, blood infections, or kidney disease.
To prevent your sick child from spreading strep throat to others in your home, keep his or her eating utensils, dishes, and drinking glasses separate and wash them in hot, soapy water after each use. Also, your child shouldn't share food, drinks, napkins, handkerchiefs, or towels with other family members.
Make sure your child covers all sneezes or coughs (if a tissue isn't handy, kids should sneeze or cough into a shirtsleeve, not their hands) to prevent passing infectious droplets to others. Also, have your child use a new toothbrush after the antibiotic treatment starts and he or she is no longer contagious.

You can help your child feel better while battling strep throat. Give plenty of liquids to prevent dehydration, such as water or ginger ale, especially if he or she has had a fever. Avoid orange juice, grapefruit juice, lemonade, or other acidic beverages, which can irritate a sore throat. Warm liquids like soups, sweetened tea, or hot chocolate can be soothing.
Talk to your doctor about when your child can return to school and other normal activities.
Everybody's heard of tonsils. But not everyone knows what tonsils do or why they may need to be removed. Knowing the facts can help alleviate the fears of both parents and kids facing a tonsillectomy.

Tonsils are clumps of tissue on both sides of the throat that help fight infections.
Tonsils may swell when they become infected (tonsillitis). If you look down your child's throat with a flashlight, the tonsils may be red and swollen or have a white or yellow coating on them. Other symptoms of tonsillitis can include:
• sore throat
• pain or discomfort when swallowing
• fever
• swollen glands (lymph nodes) in the neck
Enlarged tonsils without any symptoms are common among kids. Left alone, enlarged tonsils may eventually shrink on their own over the course of several years.
Don't rely on your own guesses, though — it can be hard to judge whether tonsils are infected. If you suspect tonsillitis, contact your doctor. Recurrent sore throats and infections should also be evaluated by the doctor, who may order a throat culture to check for strep throat.
Children with chronic illnesses can be at special risk for certain types of pneumonia, so they might need additional vaccines or protective immune medication. ("Chronic" means an ongoing illness or one that goes away and keeps coming back.) The flu vaccine is recommended for all healthy kids ages 6 months through 19 years, but especially for kids with chronic illnesses such as heart or lung disorders or asthma.
Because they're at higher risk for serious complications, babies born prematurely may get treatments that temporarily protect against RSV because it can lead to pneumonia in younger kids.
Doctors may give antibiotics to prevent pneumonia in kids who have been exposed to someone with certain types of pneumonia, such as pertussis. Those with HIV infection might be given antibiotics to prevent pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii.
Antiviral medicine is now available, too, and can be used to prevent some types of viral pneumonia or to make symptoms less severe. In general, pneumonia is not contagious, but the upper respiratory viruses and bacteria that lead to it are. So it's best to keep kids away from anyone with symptoms (stuffy or runny nose, sore throat, cough, etc.) of a respiratory infection.
If someone in your home has a respiratory infection or throat infection, keep his or her drinking glasses and eating utensils separate from those of other family members, and wash your handsoften, especially if you are handling used tissues or dirty handkerchiefs.

Whooping cough (pertussis) is an infection of the respiratory systemcaused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis (or B. pertussis). It mainly affects babies younger than 6 months old who aren't yet protected by immunizations, and kids 11 to 18 years old whose immunity has started to fade. Whooping cough causes severe coughing spells, which can sometimes end in a "whooping" sound when the child breathes in. Before a vaccine was available, pertussis killed about 9,000 people in the United States each year. Now, the pertussis vaccine has reduced the annual number of deaths to less than 20. But in recent years, the number of cases has started to rise. In 2012, the number of whooping cough cases spiked up to almost 50,000, the highest level since the 1950s.

The first symptoms of whooping cough are similar to those of a common cold:
• runny nose
• sneezing
• mild cough
• low-grade fever
After about 1 to 2 weeks, the dry, irritating cough evolves into coughing spells. During a coughing spell, which can last for more than a minute, a child may turn red or purple. At the end of a spell, the child may make the characteristic whooping sound when breathing in or may vomit. Between spells, the child usually feels well.
While many infants and younger kids with whooping cough develop the coughing fits and accompanying whoop, not all do. And sometimes babies don't cough or whoop as older kids do. Infants may look as if they're gasping for air with a reddened face and may actually stop breathing (this is called apnea) for a few seconds during very bad spells.
Adults and teens may have milder or different symptoms, such as a prolonged cough (rather than coughing spells) or coughing without the whoop.

Whooping cough can be prevented with the pertussis vaccine, which is part of the DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis) immunization.
DTaP immunizations are routinely given in five doses before a child's sixth birthday. For additional protection in case immunity fades, experts recommend that kids ages 11-18 get a booster shot of the new combination vaccine (called Tdap), ideally when they're 11 or 12 years old.
The Tdap vaccine is similar to DTaP but with lower concentrations of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. It also should be given to adults who did not receive it as preteens or teens. The vaccine is also recommended for all pregnant women during the second half of each pregnancy, regardless of whether or not they had the vaccine before, or when it was last given.
Getting the vaccine is especially important for people who are in close contact with infants, because babies can develop severe and potentially life-threatening complications from whooping cough. An adult's immunity to whooping cough lessens over time, so getting vaccinated and protecting yourself against the infection also helps protect your infant or child from getting it.
As is the case with all immunization schedules, there are important exceptions and special circumstances. Your doctor will have the most current information.
People who live with or come into close contact with someone who has pertussis should receive antibiotics to prevent the spread of the disease, even if they've already been vaccinated against it. Young kids who have not received all five doses of the vaccine may need a booster dose if exposed to an infected family member.

Cough With Wheezing
If your child makes a wheezing (whistling) sound when breathing out (exhaling), this could mean that the lower airways in the lungs are swollen. This can happen with asthma or with the viral infection bronchiolitis. Wheezing also can happen if the lower airway is blocked by a foreign object.
Nighttime Cough
Lots of coughs get worse at night. When your child has a cold, the mucus from the nose and sinuses can drain down the throat and trigger a cough during sleep. This is only a problem if the cough won't let your child sleep.
Asthma also can trigger nighttime coughs because the airways tend to be more sensitive and irritable at night.
Daytime Cough
Cold air or activity can make coughs worse during the daytime. Try to make sure that nothing in your house — like air freshener, pets, or smoke (especially tobacco smoke) — is making your child cough.
Cough With a Fever
A child who has a cough, mild fever, and runny nose probably has a common cold. But coughs with a fever of 102°F (39°C) or higher can sometimes be due to pneumonia, especially if a child is weak and breathing fast. In this case, call your doctor immediately.
Cough With Vomiting
Kids often cough so much that it triggers their gag reflex, making them throw up. Also, a child who has a cough with a cold or an asthma flare-up might vomit if lots of mucus drains into the stomach and causes nausea. Usually, this is not cause for alarm unless the vomiting doesn't stop.
Persistent Cough
Coughs caused by colds due to viruses can last weeks, especially if a child has one cold right after another. Asthma, allergies, or a chronic infection in the sinuses or airways also might cause persistent coughs. If the cough lasts for 3 weeks, call your doctor.